PRODUCTS & MARKETS

INJECTION MOLDING


TECHNOLOGY



Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials.

Material is fed into a heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the mold cavity. After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, molds are made by a moldmaker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars.

Process Characteristics
• Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold cavity
• Produces a solid or open-ended shape that has conformed to the contour of the mold
• Uses thermoplastic or thermoset materials
• Produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks
• Ejector pin marks are usually present

History
The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1851 by Alexander Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and highly flammable.
In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into finished form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872. This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold.

The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs. The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process, which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste.
The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive, medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction.

Applications
Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools, packaging, bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, and most other plastic products available today. Injection molding is the most common method of part manufacturing. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates, repeatable high tolerances, the ability to use a wide range of materials, low labor cost, minimal scrap losses, and little need to finish parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment, potentially high running costs, and the need to design moldable parts.

Most polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics, some thermosets, and some elastomers. In 1995 there were approximately 18,000 different materials available for injection molding and that number was increasing at an average rate of 750 per year. The available materials are alloys or blends of previously developed materials meaning that product designers can choose from a vast selection of materials, one that has exactly the right properties. Materials are chosen based on the strength and function required for the final part, but also each material has different parameters for molding that must be taken into account. Common polymers like Epoxy and phenolic are examples of thermosetting plastics while nylon, polyethylene, and polystyrene are thermoplastic.

Equipment
Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper, an injection ram or screw-type plunger, and a heating unit. They are also known as presses, they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. Presses are rated by tonnage, which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can exert. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons, with the higher figures used in comparatively few manufacturing operations. The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being molded. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. As a rule of thumb, 4 or 5 tons/in2 can be used for most products. If the plastic material is very stiff, it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold, thus more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. The required force can also be determined by the material used and the size of the part, larger parts require higher clamping force.
Mold or die are the common terms used to describe the tooling used to produce plastic parts in molding. Since molds have been expensive to manufacture, they were usually only used in mass production where thousands of parts were being produced. Typical molds are constructed from hardened steel, pre-hardened steel, aluminum, and/or beryllium-copper alloy. The choice of material to build a mold from is primarily one of economics; in general, steel molds cost more to construct, but their longer lifespan will offset the higher initial cost over a higher number of parts made before wearing out. Pre-hardened steel molds are less wear-resistant and are used for lower volume requirements or larger components. The typical steel hardness is 38-45 on the Rockwell-C scale. Hardened steel molds are heat treated after machining. These are by far the superior in terms of wear resistance and lifespan. Typical hardness ranges between 50 and 60 Rockwell-C (HRC). Aluminum molds can cost substantially less, and, when designed and machined with modern computerized equipment, can be economical for molding tens or even hundreds of thousands of parts. Beryllium copper is used in areas of the mold that require fast heat removal or areas that see the most shear heat generated. The molds can be manufactured either by CNC machining or by using Electrical Discharge Machining processes.

Standard two plates tooling – core and cavity are inserts in a mold base – "Family mold" of 5 different parts. The mold consists of two primary components, the injection mold (A plate) and the ejector mold (B plate). Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold, the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold, also known as the cavity. The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. These channels allow plastic to run along them, so they are referred to as runners. The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity geometry to form the desired part.
The amount of resin required to fill the sprue, runner and cavities of a mold is a shot. Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape, it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity, where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material. To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold, the mold features must not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens, unless parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters).
Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes) are typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. Insufficient draft can cause deformation or damage. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity, the more draft necessary. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required. If the skin is too thin, then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling, and cling to those cores or part may warp, twist, blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away. The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens, and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side. Tunnel gates, also known as submarine or mold gate, is located below the parting line or mold surface. The opening is machined into the surface of the mold on the parting line. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. Ejector pins, also known as knockout pin, is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half), which pushes the finished molded product, or runner system out of a mold.
The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. The coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate.
To ease maintenance and venting, cavities and cores are divided into pieces, called inserts, and sub-assemblies, also called inserts, blocks, or chase blocks. By substituting interchangeable inserts, one mold may make several variations of the same part.
More complex parts are formed using more complex molds. These may have sections called slides, that move into a cavity perpendicular to the draw direction, to form overhanging part features. When the mold is opened, the slides are pulled away from the plastic part by using stationary “angle pins” on the stationary mold half. These pins enter a slot in the slides and cause the slides to move backward when the moving half of the mold opens. The part is then ejected and the mold closes. The closing action of the mold causes the slides to move forward along the angle pins.
Some molds allow previously molded parts to be reinserted to allow a new plastic layer to form around the first part. This is often referred to as overmolding. This system can allow for production of one-piece tires and wheels.
2-shot or multi-shot molds are designed to "overmold" within a single molding cycle and must be processed on specialized injection molding machines with two or more injection units. This process is actually an injection molding process performed twice. In the first step, the base color material is molded into a basic shape. Then the second material is injection-molded into the remaining open spaces. That space is then filled during the second injection step with a material of a different color.
A mold can produce several copies of the same parts in a single "shot". The number of "impressions" in the mold of that part is often incorrectly referred to as cavitation. A tool with one impression will often be called a single impression(cavity) mold. A mold with 2 or more cavities of the same parts will likely be referred to as multiple impression (cavity) mold. Some extremely high production volume molds (like those for bottle caps) can have over 128 cavities.
In some cases multiple cavity tooling will mold a series of different parts in the same tool. Some toolmakers call these molds family molds as all the parts are related.

Effects on the material properties
The mechanical properties of a part are usually little affected. Some parts can have internal stresses in them. This is one of the reasons why it's good to have uniform wall thickness when molding. One of the physical property changes is shrinkage. A permanent chemical property change is the material thermoset, which can't be remelted to be injected again.

Geometrical Possibilities
The most commonly used plastic molding process, injection molding, is used to create a large variety of products with different shapes and sizes. Most importantly, they can create products with complex geometry that many other processes cannot. There are a few precautions when designing something that will be made using this process to reduce the risk of weak spots. First, streamline your product or keep the thickness relatively uniform. Second, try and keep your product between 2 to 20 inches.
The size of a part will depend on a number of factors (material, wall thickness, shape, process etc.). Injection process With Injection Molding, granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a heated barrel. As the granules are slowly moved forward by a screw-type plunger, the plastic is forced into a heated chamber, where it is melted. As the plunger advances, the melted plastic is forced through a nozzle that rests against the mold, allowing it to enter the mold cavity through a gate and runner system. The mold remains cold so the plastic solidifies almost as soon as the mold is filled.

Injection Molding Cycle
The sequence of events during the injection mold of a plastic part is called the injection molding cycle. The cycle begins when the mold closes, followed by the injection of the polymer into the mold cavity. Once the cavity is filled, a holding pressure is maintained to compensate for material shrinkage. In the next step, the screw turns, feeding the next shot to the front screw. This causes the screw to retract as the next shot is prepared. Once the part is sufficiently cool, the mold opens and the part is ejected.

Process Troubleshooting
Optimal process settings are critical to influencing the cost, quality, and productivity of plastic injection molding. The main trouble in injection molding is to have a box of good plastics parts contaminated with scrap. For that reason process optimization studies have to be done and process monitoring has to take place. To have a constant filling rate in the cavity the switch over from injection phase to the holding phase can be made based on a cavity pressure level.
Having a stable production window the following issues are worth to investigate:
The Metering phase can be optimized by varying screw turns per minute and backpressure. Variation of time needed to reload the screw gives an indication of the stability of this phase.
Injection speed can be optimized by pressure drop studies between pressure measured in the Nozzle (alternatively hydraulic pressure) and pressure measured in the cavity. Melted material with a lower viscosity has less pressure loss from nozzle to cavity than material with a higher viscosity. Varying the Injection speed changes the sheer rate. Higher speed = higher sheer rate = lower viscosity. Pay attention increasing the mold and melt temperature lowers the viscosity but lowers the sheer rate too.
Gate seal or gate freeze / sink mark / weight and geometry studies have the approach to prevent sink marks and geometrical faults. Optimizing the high and duration of applied holding pressure based on cavity pressure curves is the appropriate way to go. The thicker the part the longer the holding pressure applied. The thinner the part the shorter the holding pressure applied.
Cooling time starts once the injection phase is finished. The hotter the melted plastics the longer the cooling time the thicker the part produced the longer the cooling time.



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SHINE 2018